An electromagnetic pulse (EMP), also known as transient electromagnetic disturbance (TED), is a brief burst of electromagnetic energy. It can originate from either natural or artificial sources, and can manifest itself as an electromagnetic field, electric field, magnetic field, or conducted electrical current. The strong electric and magnetic fields of an EMP can cause significant damage to unprotected electronics and electronic equipment over a large area. Communications infrastructure such as mobile phone towers, telecommunication switches, parabolic antennas, and radars are particularly vulnerable to the effects of an EMP.
Additionally, an EMP can physically damage objects such as buildings and aircraft. Managing the effects of an EMP is a branch of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) engineering. EMP events can also be caused by intentional attacks using high-altitude nuclear detonations, specialized conventional munitions, or directed non-nuclear energy devices. The report on the status of the EMP program highlights the efforts made in both the public and private sectors to promote greater resilience to EMP events. Although some types of EMP events can leave an optical trail such as lightning and sparks, these are side effects of current flow through the air and are not part of the EMP itself. An electromagnetic pulse attack has the potential to cause serious damage to a wide range of targets.
The effects of an EMP attack can be devastating for any organization or individual that relies on electronic equipment for their operations. An EMP attack can cause significant disruption to communications networks, power grids, and other critical infrastructure. It can also cause physical damage to objects such as buildings and aircraft. In order to protect against the potential effects of an EMP attack, organizations should take steps to ensure that their electronic equipment is properly shielded from electromagnetic fields. Additionally, organizations should ensure that their critical infrastructure is protected from potential EMP attacks by implementing appropriate security measures. Organizations should also consider investing in technologies that are designed to mitigate the effects of an EMP attack.
These technologies include surge protectors, Faraday cages, and other specialized equipment that can help protect against the damaging effects of an EMP. By taking steps to protect against the potential effects of an EMP attack, organizations can ensure that their operations remain secure and resilient in the face of a potential attack.